Expressions

Kinetica has native API support for a variety of expressions, which are used as inputs while querying data (for supported SQL expressions, see Queries (SQL) ). These native API expressions can involve one or more constants (both numeric and string) and table columns; however, expressions cannot be applied to store-only columns. The expressions follow certain constraints based on where they are used, but all the expressions should follow the basic guidelines outlined below.

Important

Use parentheses liberally to ensure correct order-of-operations.

Constants

Types Details
String

String constants must be enclosed in single quotes or double quotes, e.g.,

  • 'hello'
  • "world"
Numerical

Numerical constants can be expressed as:

  • decimal integers (31242)
  • hex integers (0x3420123a)
  • doubles (3.41e5)
  • floats (3.1415F)
Date/Time

Supported date formats have optional leading zeros for months & days, while datetime optionally supports UTC format. Examples of each date/time data type:

  • date (2000-1-2, 2020-01-02)
  • time (1:23:45, 17:17:17)
  • datetime (2000-1-2 1:23:45.678, 2020-01-02T17:17:17Z)

Operators

When these operators are applied to numeric columns, they will interpret non-zero values as true and zero values as false, returning 1 for true and 0 for false.

Types Details
Bitwise & | << >> ~ ^
Comparison

> < >= <= == = != <> in

  • Only = and != are supported for unrestricted string fields
  • All comparison operators are supported for charN fields
Logical
Operator Details
and Evaluates to true only if both sides of the expression are true; see Short-Circuiting for error-checking details
or Evaluates to true if either side of the expression is true; see Short-Circuiting for error-checking details
xor Evaluates to true only if one side of the expression is true and the other false
not Evaluates to true if the expression is false, and vice versa
! Synonym for not
Mathematical + - * /

Functions

Conditional Functions

Function Description
CASE(expr, {<matches>}, {<values>}, value_if_no_match)

Evaluates expr: returns the first value from the values list whose corresponding match from the matches list is equal to expr; returns value_if_no_match if expr is not equal to any of the matches in the matches list

Note

A null cannot be used for either a match or value, but value_if_no_match can be null.

Parameter Description
expr any expression to match against the list of matches
matches a comma-delimited list of constants to match expr against; needs to be of the same data type as expr and have the same number of list items as the values list
values a comma-delimited list of constants, one of which will be returned in the event that expr matches an item in the matches list; needs to be of the same data type as value_if_no_match and have the same number of list items as the matches list
value_if_no match any value to return in the event of a match; needs to be of the same data type as the list items in values

Examples:

Function Call Result
CASE(0, {1, 2, 3}, {'A', 'B', 'C'}, 'D') D
CASE(1, {1, 2, 3}, {'A', 'B', 'C'}, 'D') A
CASE(2, {1, 2, 3}, {'A', 'B', 'C'}, 'D') B
CASE(3, {1, 2, 3}, {'A', 'B', 'C'}, 'D') C
CASE(4, {1, 2, 3}, {'A', 'B', 'C'}, 'D') D
IF(expr, value_if_true, value_if_false)

Evaluates expr: if true, returns value_if_true; otherwise, if false or null, returns value_if_false; see Short-Circuiting for error-checking details

Parameter Description
expr

any true/false condition

Note

When an integer column is used directly, this function will interpret non-zero values as true and zero values as false.

value_if_true any type; must be the same type as value_if_false
value_if_false any type; must be the same type as value_if_true

Conversion Functions

For the CAST() and CONVERT() functions, valid destination types are:

Numeric Text Date/Time Geometry
  • bool
  • int8
  • int16
  • int
  • long
  • ulong
  • float
  • double
  • decimal
  • string
  • char1
  • char2
  • char4
  • char8
  • char16
  • char32
  • char64
  • char128
  • char256
  • timestamp
  • date
  • time
  • datetime
  • geometry
Function Description
CAST(original value, destination type) Returns the equivalent of original value converted to the destination type. Useful for converting strings to numbers and numbers to strings
CHAR(int) Returns the character associated with the ASCII code in int
CHAR1(charN) Converts the given charN to char1 type
CHAR2(charN) Converts the given charN to char2 type
CHAR4(charN) Converts the given charN to char4 type
CHAR8(charN) Converts the given charN to char8 type
CHAR16(charN) Converts the given charN to char16 type
CHAR32(charN) Converts the given charN to char32 type
CHAR64(charN) Converts the given charN to char64 type
CHAR128(charN) Converts the given charN to char128 type
CHAR256(charN) Converts the given charN to char256 type
CONVERT(original value, destination type, style)

Returns the equivalent of original value converted to the destination type. The style parameter is currently only applicable when the destination type is string and the original value is of timestamp or datetime type.

Valid style codes include:

Style Format
0 mon dd yyyy hh:mi<AM|PM>

21

121

yyyy-mm-dd hh:mi:ss.mmm

Examples:

Function Call Result
CONVERT('0.1', double) 0.1
CONVERT(DATETIME('2000-10-10 12:34:56'), string, 0) Oct 10 2000 12:34PM
CONVERT(DATETIME(971181296789), string, 21) 2000-10-10 12:34:56.789
DATE(expr) Converts expr to date (YYYY-MM-DD) format
DATETIME(expr) Converts expr to datetime (YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS.mmm) format
DECIMAL(expr) Converts the given expr to decimal type
DOUBLE(expr) Converts the given expr to double type
FLOAT(expr) Converts the given expr to float type
INT(expr) Converts the given expr to int type
LONG(expr) Converts the given expr to long type
STRING(expr) Converts expr to a string format appropriate for the expr type
TIME(expr) Converts expr to time (HH:MI:SS.mmm) format
TIMESTAMP(expr) Converts expr to the number of milliseconds since the epoch
TO_CHAR(expr, format)

Converts the given date/time expr to a string matching the given format. The returned string will be truncated at 32 characters. See Date/Time Conversion Codes for the list of format codes.

Example:

Function Call TO_CHAR(DATETIME(971181296000), '"Last login: "YYYY-MM-DD')
Return Last login: 2000-10-10
TO_DATE(string, format)

Converts the given string to a date type with the given format code. See Date/Time Conversion Codes for the list of format codes.

Example:

TO_DATE('2017-06-15', 'YYYY-MM-DD')
TO_DATETIME(string, format)

Converts the given string to a datetime type with the given format code. See Date/Time Conversion Codes for the list of format codes.

Example:

TO_DATE('2017-06-15 10:37:30', 'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS')
TO_TIME(string, format)

Converts the given string to a time type with the given format code. See Date/Time Conversion Codes for the list of format codes.

Example:

TO_TIME('10:37:30', 'HH:MI:SS')
TO_TIMESTAMP(string, format)

Converts the given string to a timestamp type with the given format code. See Date/Time Conversion Codes for the list of format codes.

Example:

TO_TIMESTAMP('2017-06-15 10:37:30', 'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI:SS')
ULONG(expr) Converts the given expr to ulong type

Date/Time Conversion Codes

The following formatting codes can be used to convert date/time strings to native date/time objects.

These characters are interpreted literally: - / , . ; :

Other characters need to be double-quoted in order to be interpreted literally. For example, MM-DD-YYYY can be used to convert 01-02-2022 to a date, while "Today is "MM-DD-YYYY is needed to convert Today is 01-02-2022.

Format Code Description
_ Any one character
? Zero or more non-digit characters
$ Everything after this is optional; e.g., HH:MI:SS$.MMM would accept 12:34:56 and 12:34:56.789
AD Era indicator without periods
A.D. Era indicator with periods
AM Meridian indicator without periods [AM, PM]
A.M. Meridian indicator with periods [A.M., P.M.]
BC Era indicator without periods
B.C. Era indicator with periods
C Number of day in calendar month, with optional leading zero [1 - 31]
CC Century (if last 2 digits of the 4-digit year are 00, this is the first 2 digits; otherwise, this is first 2 digits + 1)
D Day of week [1 - 7] (Sunday - Saturday)
DAY Day of week [Sunday - Saturday]
DD Number of day in month, with leading zero [01 - 31]
DDD Number of day of year [1 - 366]
DL Date long format (fmDay, Month dd, yyyy)
DS Date short format (MM/DD/RRRR)
DY Abbreviated day name
E Abbreviated era name
EE Full era name
FF[1-9] Fractional seconds with the number of fractional second digits specified
FM Format model--toggles leading or trailing blanks. A modifier can appear in a format model more than once. In such a case, each subsequent occurrence toggles the effects of the modifier. Its effects are enabled for the portion of the model following its first occurrence, and then disabled for the portion following its second, and then re-enabled for the portion following its third, and so on.
FX Format exact--requires exact matching between the character data and the format model
H Alias for H12
H12 Hour of day in 12-hour format, with optional leading zero [0 - 11]
H24 Hour of day in 24-hour format, with optional leading zero [0 - 23]
HH Alias for HH12
HH12 Hour of day in 12-hour format, with leading zero [00 - 11]
HH24 Hour of day in 24-hour format, with leading zero [00 - 23]
I Last digit of ISO year
ID ISO 8601 day of week [1 - 7] (Monday - Sunday)
IDDD ISO 8601 day of year [001 - 371] (where 001 is the Monday of the 1st ISO week)
IW ISO 8601 week of year [01 - 53] (where 01 contains the first Thursday of the year)
IY Last 2 digits of ISO year
IYY Last 3 digits of ISO year
IYYY Last 4 digits of ISO year
J Julian day; the number of days since January 1, 4712 BC. Number specified with J must be integers.
LLL Whole milliseconds (often positioned after a colon); e.g., 12:34:56:78 => 78 milliseconds
M Number of month in year, with optional leading zero [1 - 12]
MI Minute of hour [00 - 59]
MM Number of month in year, with leading zero [01 - 12]
MMM Fractions of a second up to milliseconds; e.g., 12:34:56.78 => 780 milliseconds
MON 3-character abbreviation of month in title case [Jan - Dec]
MONTH Full name of month [January - December]
MS Alias for MMM
OF Time-zone offset from UTC (only supported in TO_CHAR)
PM Alias for AM
P.M. Alias for A.M.
Q Quarter of the year [1 - 4] (January-March - October-December)
RM Roman numeral month [I - XII] (January - December)
RR

Rounded year. Assume the given 2-digit year occurs in the present century, then:

  • If the assumed date is greater than 50 years into the future, declare the date to be in the previous century
  • If the assumed date is greater than 50 years into the past, declare the date to be in the next century
RRRR Either a 2-digit or 4-digit year; if 2-digit, equivalent to RR
SCC Same as CC, except that a leading negative sign can be used to indicate B.C. dates
SS Second of minute [00 - 59]
SSSS Alias for SSSSS
SSSSS Seconds past midnight [0 - 86399]
SYEAR Same as YEAR, except that a leading negative sign can be used to indicate B.C. dates
SYYYY Same as YYYY, except that a leading negative sign can be used to indicate B.C. dates
TS Time short format (H24:MI:SS.MMM)
TZ Time zone abbreviation
TZD Time zone Daylight Savings information
TZH Time zone hour (ISO)
TZM Time zone minute (ISO)
TZR Time zone region (e.g., US/Pacific)
US Microseconds
W Week of month [1 - 5], where week 1 starts on the first day of the month and ends on the seventh
WW Week of year [1 - 53], where week 1 starts on the first day of the year and continues to the seventh day of the year
X Local radix character (e.g., ., as in HH:MI:SSXFF)
Y Last 1 digit of year
Y,YYY Year with a comma after the thousands place
YEAR Year spelled out
YY Last 2 digits of year
YYY Last 3 digits of year
YYYY 4-digit year

Date/Time Functions

This section comprises the following functions:

Date/Time Base Functions

Note

Integer fields are assumed to be seconds since the epoch; long/timestamp fields are assumed to be milliseconds since the epoch.

Function Description
CURRENT_DATE() Returns the date as YYYY-MM-DD
CURRENT_DATETIME() Returns the date & time as YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS.mmm
CURRENT_TIME() Returns the time as HH24:MI:SS.mmm
CURRENT_TIMESTAMP() Returns the date & time as the number of milliseconds since the epoch
DATEADD(unit, amount, expr) Alias for TIMESTAMPADD(unit, amount, expr)
DATEDIFF(expr_begin, expr_end) Determines the difference between two dates, irrespective of time component, as the number of days when expr_begin is subtracted from expr_end; returns a negative number of days if expr_begin occurs after expr_end
DATE_TRUNC(part, expr)

Returns the date/time expr after truncating it beyond the given date/time part. The following date/time constants are supported for part:

Constant Description
YEAR Return the first day of the year in which expr occurs
QUARTER Return the first day of the quarter in which expr occurs
MONTH Return the first day of the month in which expr occurs
WEEK Return the first day of the week in which expr occurs
DAY Return the date (at midnight) on which expr occurs
HOUR Return the timestamp up to the hour in which expr occurs
MINUTE Return the timestamp up to the minute in which expr occurs
SECOND Return the timestamp up to the second in which expr occurs
MILLISECOND Return the timestamp up to the millisecond in which expr occurs

Examples:

Function Call Result
DATE_TRUNC(YEAR, '2008-09-10 12:34:56.789') 2008-01-01 00:00:00.000
DATE_TRUNC(QUARTER, '2008-09-10 12:34:56.789') 2008-07-01 00:00:00.000
DATE_TRUNC(MONTH, '2008-09-10 12:34:56.789') 2008-09-01 00:00:00.000
DATE_TRUNC(WEEK, '2008-09-10 12:34:56.789') 2008-09-07 00:00:00.000
DATE_TRUNC(DAY, '2008-09-10 12:34:56.789') 2008-09-10 00:00:00.000
DATE_TRUNC(HOUR, '2008-09-10 12:34:56.789') 2008-09-10 12:00:00.000
DATE_TRUNC(MINUTE, '2008-09-10 12:34:56.789') 2008-09-10 12:34:00.000
DATE_TRUNC(SECOND, '2008-09-10 12:34:56.789') 2008-09-10 12:34:56.000
DATE_TRUNC(MILLISECOND, '2008-09-10 12:34:56.789') 2008-09-10 12:34:56.789
DAY(expr) Alias for DAYOFMONTH(expr)
DAYNAME(expr) Extracts the day of the week from expr and converts it to the corresponding day name [Sunday - Saturday ]
DAYOFMONTH(expr) Extracts the day of the month from expr [1 - 31]
DAYOFWEEK(expr)

Extracts the day of the week from expr [1 - 7]

Expression Value Result
Date on Sunday 1
Date on Monday 2
Date on Tuesday 3
Date on Wednesday 4
Date on Thursday 5
Date on Friday 6
Date on Saturday 7
DAY_OF_WEEK(expr) Alias for DAYOFWEEK(expr)
DAYOFYEAR(expr) Extracts the day of the year from expr [1 - 366]
DAY_OF_YEAR(expr) Alias for DAYOFYEAR(expr)
HOUR(expr) Extracts the hour of the day from expr [0 - 23]
LAST_DAY(expr) Returns the date of the last day of the month in the given expr
MINUTE(expr) Extracts the minute of the day from expr [0 - 59]
MONTH(expr) Extracts the month of the year from expr [1 - 12]
MONTHNAME(expr) Extracts the month of the year from expr and converts it to the corresponding month name [ January - December]
MSEC(expr) Extracts the millisecond of the second from expr [0 - 999]
MSECS_SINCE_EPOCH(expr)

Converts expr to the number of milliseconds since the epoch

Example:

Function Call MSECS_SINCE_EPOCH('2000-10-10 12:34:56.789')
Return 971181296789
NEXT_DAY(date, expr)

Returns the date of the next day of the week, provided as a day name in expr, that occurs after the given date

Some examples, given that 2000-10-10 is a Tuesday:

Function Call Result
NEXT_DAY('2000-10-10', 'Wednesday') 2000-10-11
NEXT_DAY('2000-10-10', 'Friday') 2000-10-13
NEXT_DAY('2000-10-10', 'Tuesday') 2000-10-17
NOW() Alias for CURRENT_DATETIME()
QUARTER(expr)

Extracts the quarter of the year from expr [1 - 4]

Expression Value Result
Date in January, February, or March 1
Date in April, May, or June 2
Date in July, August, or September 3
Date in October, November, or December 4
SEC(expr) Alias for SECOND(expr)
SECOND(expr) Extracts the seconds of the minute from expr [ 0 - 59 ]
SECS_SINCE_EPOCH(expr)

Converts expr to seconds since the epoch

Example:

Function Call SECS_SINCE_EPOCH('2000-10-10 12:34:56')
Return 971181296
TIMEBOUNDARYDIFF(unit, begin, end)

Calculates the difference between two date/time expressions, returning the result as an integral difference in the units specified; more precisely, how many whole date/time intervals of type unit need to be added to (or subtracted from) begin to equal end up to the precision of the unit specified, using the unit types and rules specified in TIMESTAMPADD.

For example, if unit were MONTH, only the year & month of begin and end would be used in the calculation; if unit were DAY, any time portion from begin & end would be dropped, and so on. This is unlike TIMESTAMPDIFF, which will consider the entirety of both begin & end in the calculation.

Note

This is symmetric with TIMESTAMPADD in all cases, as adding 1 MONTH to Mar 31st results in Apr 30th, and the TIMEBOUNDARYDIFF in MONTH units between those two dates is 1.

Examples:

Function Call Result
TIMEBOUNDARYDIFF(MONTH, DATE('2000-10-10'), DATE('2000-12-31')) 2
TIMEBOUNDARYDIFF(MONTH, DATE('2000-03-31'), DATE('2000-04-30')) 1
TIMEBOUNDARYDIFF(MONTH, DATE('2000-12-31'), DATE('2000-10-10')) -2
TIMEBOUNDARYDIFF(HOUR, 978222896000, DATETIME('2000-10-10 12:34:56')) -1956

Important

This function does not work with string literal date stamps (e.g., 2000-12-31 12:34:56); to use string literals in this function, first cast them to the appropriate date/time type (e.g., DATETIME('YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS'))

TIMESTAMPADD(unit, amount, expr)

Adds the positive or negative integral amount of unit date/time intervals to the date/time in expr

The following date/time intervals are supported for unit:

Constant Description
YEAR Year is modified by interval amount (not affected by leap year, etc.) overflow/underflow occurs
QUARTER Month is modified by three times the interval amount, irrespective of the number of days in the months between; day adjusting performed the same as the MONTH description, but only on final month (e.g., Jan 31st + 1 quarter will be Apr 30th, not Apr 28th because of February)
MONTH Month is modified by interval amount and date adjusted if overflow/underflow occurs; day adjusted to last day of calculated month if not a valid day for that month (e.g., Apr 31st -> Apr 30th)
WEEK Day is modified by 7 times the interval amount (time not affected by daylight savings time, etc.); month & year are adjusted, if overflow/underflow occurs
DAY Day is modified by interval amount (time not affected by daylight savings time, etc.); date is adjusted, if overflow/underflow occurs
HOUR Hours are modified by interval amount (time not affected by daylight savings time, etc.); date is adjusted, if overflow/underflow occurs
MINUTE Minutes are modified by interval amount; date/time are adjusted, if overflow/underflow occurs
SECOND Seconds are modified by interval amount; date/time are adjusted, if overflow/underflow occurs
MILLISECOND Milliseconds are modified by interval amount; date/time are adjusted, if overflow/underflow occurs

Note

Any of these unit types can have a SQL_TSI_ prefix prepended to them; e.g., both DAY and SQL_TSI_DAY are valid unit types for specifying a day interval. They may also be single-quoted or unquoted.

Examples:

Function Call Result (in string format)
TIMESTAMPADD(YEAR, 1, '2000-10-10') 2001-10-10
TIMESTAMPADD(QUARTER, 1, '2000-11-30') 2001-02-28
TIMESTAMPADD(MONTH, 1, '2000-01-31') 2000-02-29
TIMESTAMPADD(WEEK, 53, '2000-01-01') 2001-01-06
TIMESTAMPADD(DAY, 1, '2000-12-31') 2001-01-01
TIMESTAMPADD(HOUR, 12, '2000-10-10 12:34:56') 2000-10-11 00:34:56.000
TIMESTAMPADD(MINUTE, 1, '2000-10-10 12:34:56') 2000-10-10 12:35:56.000
TIMESTAMPADD(SECOND, 1, '2000-12-31 23:59:59') 2001-01-01 00:00:00.000
TIMESTAMPADD(MILLISECOND, 1, '2000-10-10 12:34:56') 2000-10-10 12:34:56.001

Note

To cast the result to a string appropriate for the date/time type (e.g., YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS), pass the result to the STRING function (e.g., STRING(TIMESTAMPADD(HOUR, 12, '2000-10-10 12:34:56')))

TIMESTAMPDIFF(unit, begin, end)

Calculates the difference between two date/time expressions, returning the result as an integral difference in the units specified; more precisely, how many whole date/time intervals of type unit need to be added to (or subtracted from) begin to equal end (or get as close as possible without going past it) using the unit types and and rules specified in TIMESTAMPADD.

Unlike TIMEBOUNDARYDIFF, all date/time components of both begin & end will be considered in the calculation, not just those that are up to the precision of unit.

Note

This is not symmetric with TIMESTAMPADD in all cases, as adding 1 MONTH to Mar 31st results in Apr 30th, but the TIMESTAMPDIFF in MONTH units between those two dates is 0.

Examples:

Function Call Result
TIMESTAMPDIFF(MONTH, DATE('2000-10-10'), DATE('2000-12-31')) 2
TIMESTAMPDIFF(MONTH, DATE('2000-03-31'), DATE('2000-04-30')) 0
TIMESTAMPDIFF(MONTH, DATE('2000-12-31'), DATE('2000-10-10')) -2
TIMESTAMPDIFF(HOUR, 978222896000, DATETIME('2000-10-10 12:34:56')) -1956

Important

This function does not work with string literal date stamps (e.g., 2000-12-31 12:34:56); to use string literals in this function, first cast them to the appropriate date/time type (e.g., DATETIME('YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS'))

TIMESTAMP_TRUNC(part, expr) Alias for DATE_TRUNC(part, expr)
UNIX_TIMESTAMP(expr) Alias for SECS_SINCE_EPOCH(expr)
WEEK(expr) Extracts the week of the year from expr [1 - 54]; each full week starts on Sunday (A 1 is returned for the week containing Jan 1st)
YEAR(expr) Extracts the year from expr; 4-digit year, A.D.

Date/Time Complex Conversion Functions

Function Description
DATE_TO_EPOCH_MSECS(year, month, day, hour, min, sec, msec)

Converts the full date to the number of milliseconds since the epoch; negative values are accepted

Example:

Function Call DATE_TO_EPOCH_MSECS(2017, 06, -15, 09, 22, 15, 42)
Return 1494926535042
Resolves To Tuesday, May 16, 2017 9:22:15.042 AM
DATE_TO_EPOCH_SECS(year, month, day, hour, min, sec)

Converts the full date to the number of seconds since the epoch; negative values are accepted

Example:

Function Call DATE_TO_EPOCH_SECS(2017, 06, -15, 09, 22, 15)
Return 1494926535
Resolves To Tuesday, May 16, 2017 9:22:15 AM
TIMESTAMP_FROM_DATE_TIME(date, time)

Converts the given date and time to a composite timestamp in milliseconds since the epoch

Example:

Function Call TIMESTAMP_FROM_DATE_TIME('2017-06-15', '10:37:30')
Return 1497523050000
WEEK_TO_EPOCH_MSECS(year, week_number)

Converts the year and week number to the number of milliseconds since the epoch; negative values are accepted

Example:

Function Call WEEK_TO_EPOCH_MSECS(2017,-32)
Return 1463270400000
Resolves To Sunday, May 15, 2016 12:00:00 AM
WEEK_TO_EPOCH_SECS(year, week_number)

Converts the year and week number to the number of seconds since the epoch. Negative values are accepted. Each new week begins Sunday at midnight.

Example:

Function Call WEEK_TO_EPOCH_SECS(2017,-32)
Return 1463270400
Resolves To Sunday, May 15, 2016 12:00:00 AM

Geospatial/Geometry Functions

Four types of geospatial functions are available in Kinetica:

  • Scalar Functions - apply a geospatial function at the record level to WKT or X/Y data
  • Enhanced Performance Scalar Functions - apply performance-optimized geospatial functions to X/Y data
  • Aggregate Functions - apply a geospatial function across groups of records to WKT or X/Y data
  • Track Functions - apply scalar & aggregate functions to track-based data

Tip

  • Use ST_ISVALID to determine if a geometry object is valid. The functions below work best with valid geometry objects.
  • Use the REMOVE_NULLABLE function to remove any nullable column types that could result from calculating a derived column (e.g., as in Projections) using one of the functions below.

Enhanced Performance Scalar Functions

The functions below all compare x and y coordinates to geometry objects (or vice versa), thus increasing their performance in queries. Each of these functions have a geometry-to-geometry version listed in the next section.

Function Description
STXY_CONTAINS(geom, x, y) Returns 1 (true) if geom contains the x and y coordinate, e.g. lies in the interior of geom. The coordinate cannot be on the boundary and also be contained because geom does not contain its boundary
STXY_CONTAINSPROPERLY(geom, x, y) Returns 1 (true) if the x and y coordinate intersects the interior of geom but not the boundary (or exterior) because geom does not contain its boundary but does contain itself
STXY_COVEREDBY(x, y, geom) Returns 1 (true) if the x and y coordinate is covered by geom
STXY_COVERS(geom, x, y) Returns 1 (true) if geom covers the x and y coordinate
STXY_DISJOINT(x, y, geom) Returns 1 (true) if the given x and y coordinate and the geometry geom do not spatially intersect.
STXY_DISTANCE(x, y, geom[, solution])

Calculates the minimum distance between the given x and y coordinate and geom using the specified solution type. Solution types available:

  • 0 (default) - Euclidean; returns 2-D Euclidean distance
  • 1 - Haversine; returns minimum sphere distance in meters
  • 2 - Vincenty; returns minimum spheroid distance in meters, more accurate than Haversine but slower performance

Note: If the x and y coordinate and geom intersect (verify using ST_INTERSECTS), the distance will always be 0.

STXY_DWITHIN(x, y, geom, distance[, solution])

Returns 1 (true) if the x and y coordinate is within the specified distance from geom using the specified solution type. Solution types available:

  • 0 (default) - Euclidean; uses degrees to calculate distance
  • 1 - Sphere; uses meters to calculate sphere distance
  • 2 - Spheroid; uses meters to calculate spheroid distance
STXY_ENVDWITHIN(x, y, geom, distance[, solution])

Returns 1 (true) if the x and y coordinate is within the specified distance from the bounding box of geom using the specified solution type. Solution types available:

  • 0 (default) - Euclidean; uses degrees to calculate distance
  • 1 - Sphere; uses meters to calculate distance
STXY_ENVINTERSECTS(x, y, geom) Returns 1 (true) if the bounding box of the given geometry geom intersects the x and y coordinate.
STXY_H3(x, y, resolution)

Returns an H3 grid index, similar to a geohash, for the cell containing the x and y coordinate, with the given resolution. The higher the resolution, the more precise the index is. The resolution must be an integer between 0 and 15.

See H3 Geohashing for an example.

STXY_INTERSECTION(x, y, geom) Returns the shared portion between the x and y coordinate and the given geometry geom, i.e. the point itself.
STXY_INTERSECTS(x, y, geom) Returns 1 (true) if the x and y coordinate and geom intersect in 2-D.
STXY_TOUCHES(x, y, geom) Returns 1 (true) if the x and y coordinate and geometry geom have at least one point in common but their interiors do not intersect. If geom is a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION, a 0 is returned regardless if the point and geometry touch
STXY_WITHIN(x, y, geom) Returns 1 (true) if the x and y coordinate is completely inside the geom geometry i.e., not on the boundary

Scalar Functions

Function Description
DIST(x1, y1, x2, y2) Computes the Euclidean distance (in degrees), i.e. SQRT( (x1-x2)*(x1-x2) + (y1-y2)*(y1-y2) ).
GEODIST(lon1, lat1, lon2, lat2) Computes the geographic great-circle distance (in meters) between two lat/lon points.
GEOHASH_DECODE_LATITUDE(geohash) Decodes a given geohash and returns the latitude value for the given hash string. Supports a maximum geohash character length of 16.
GEOHASH_DECODE_LONGITUDE(geohash) Decodes a given geohash and returns the longitude value for the given hash string. Supports a maximum geohash character length of 16.
GEOHASH_ENCODE(lat, lon, precision)

Encodes a given coordinate pair and returns a hash string with a given precision.

See Geohashing for an example.

GEOMETRY(wkt) Alias for ST_GEOMFROMTEXT(wkt)
ST_ADDPOINT(linestring, point, position) Adds a given point geometry to the given linestring geometry at the specified position, which is a 0-based index.
ST_ALMOSTEQUALS(geom1, geom2, decimal) Returns 1 (true) if given geometries, geom1 and geom2, are almost spatially equal within the given amount of decimal scale. Note that geometries will still be considered equal if the decimal scale for the geometries is within a half order of magnitude of each other; e.g., if decimal is set to 2, then POINT(63.4 123.45) and POINT(63.4 123.454) are equal, but POINT(63.4 123.45) and POINT(63.4 123.459) are not equal. The geometry types must match to be considered equal.
ST_AREA(geom[, solution])

Returns the area of the given geometry geom if it is a POLYGON or MULTIPOLYGON using the specified solution type. Returns 0 if the input geometry type is (MULTI)POINT or (MULTI)LINESTRING. Solution types available:

  • 0 (default) - 2D Euclidean area
  • 1 - curved surface area on a sphere in square meters
  • 2 - curved surface area on a spheroid in square meters
ST_AZIMUTH(geom1, geom2) Returns the azimuth in radians defined by the segment between two POINTs, geom1 and geom2. Returns a null if the input geometry type is MULTIPOINT, (MULTI)LINESTRING, or (MULTI)POLYGON.
ST_BOUNDARY(geom) Returns the closure of the combinatorial boundary of a given geometry geom. Returns an empty geometry if geom is an empty geometry. Returns a null if geom is a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION
ST_BOUNDINGDIAGONAL(geom) Returns the diagonal of the given geometry's (geom) bounding box.
ST_BUFFER(geom, radius[, style[, solution]])

Returns a geometry that represents all points whose distance from the given geometry geom is less than or equal to the given distance radius. The radius units can be specified by the solution type (default is in degrees) and the radius is created in the provided style. The style options are specified as a list of blank-separated key-value pairs, e.g., 'quad_segs=8 endcap=round'. If an empty style list ('') is provided, the default settings will be used. The style parameter must be specified to provide a solution type.

Available style options:

  • quad_segs - the number of segments used to approximate a quarter circle (default is 8)
  • endcap - the endcap style of the buffer (default is round); options are round, flat (or butt), and square
  • join - the join style of the buffer (default is round); options are round, mitre (or miter), and bevel
  • mitre_limit - the mitre ratio limit expressed as a floating-point number (miter_limit is also acceptable)

Available solution types:

  • 0 (default) - 2D Euclidean radius distance in degrees
  • 1 - curved surface radius distance on a sphere in meters
  • 2 - curved surface radius distance on a spheroid in meters

Tip

To create a 5-meter buffer around geom using the default styles: ST_BUFFER(geom, 5, '', 1). To create a 5-foot (converting feet to meters) buffer around geom using the following styles: ST_BUFFER(geom, 5*0.3048,'quad_segs=4 endcap=flat', 1)

ST_CENTROID(geom) Calculates the center of the given geometry geom as a POINT. For (MULTI)POINTs, the center is calculated as the average of the input coordinates. For (MULTI)LINESTRINGs, the center is calculated as the weighted length of each given LINESTRING. For (MULTI)POLYGONs, the center is calculated as the weighted area of each given POLYGON. If geom is an empty geometry, an empty GEOMETRYCOLLECTION is returned
ST_CLIP(geom1, geom2) Returns the geometry shared between given geometries geom1 and geom2
ST_CLOSESTPOINT(geom1, geom2[, solution])

Calculates the 2-D POINT in geom1 that is closest to geom2 using the specified solution type. If geom1 or geom2 is empty, a null is returned. Solution types available:

  • 0 (default) - Euclidean; calculates the closest point using 2-D Euclidean distance
  • 1 - Haversine; calculates the closest point using sphere distance in meters
  • 2 - Vincenty; returns minimum spheroid distance in meters, more accurate than Haversine but slower performance
ST_COLLECT(geom1, geom2) Returns a MULTI* or GEOMETRYCOLLECTION comprising geom1 and geom2. If geom1 and geom2 are the same, singular geometry type, a MULTI* is returned, e.g., if geom1 and geom2 are both POINTs (empty or no), a MULTIPOINT is returned. If geom1 and geom2 are neither the same type nor singular geometries, a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION is returned.
ST_COLLECTIONEXTRACT(collection, type)

Returns only the specified type from the given geometry collection. Type is a number that maps to the following:

  • 1 = POINT
  • 2 = LINESTRING
  • 3 = POLYGON
ST_COLLECTIONHOMOGENIZE(collection) Returns the simplest form of the given collection, e.g., a collection with a single POINT will be returned as POINT(x y), and a collection with multiple individual points will be returned as a MULTIPOINT.
ST_CONCAVEHULL(geom, target_percent[, allow_holes]) Returns a potentially concave geometry that encloses all geometries found in the given geom set. Use target_percent (values between 0 and 1) to determine the percent of area of a convex hull the concave hull will attempt to fill; 1 will return the same geometry as an ST_CONVEXHULL operation. Set allow_holes to 1 (true) to allow holes in the resulting geometry; default value is 0 (false). Note that allow_holes is independent of the area of target_percent.
ST_CONTAINS(geom1, geom2) Returns 1 (true) if no points of geom2 lie in the exterior of geom1 and at least one point of geom2 lies in the interior of geom1. Note that geom1 does not contain its boundary but does contain itself.
ST_CONTAINSPROPERLY(geom1, geom2) Returns 1 (true) if geom2 intersects the interior of geom1 but not the boundary (or exterior). Note that geom1 does not contain its boundary but does contain itself.
ST_CONVEXHULL(geom) Returns the minimum convex geometry that encloses all geometries in the given geom set.
ST_COORDDIM(geom) Returns the coordinate dimension of the given geom, e.g., a geometry with x, y, and z coordinates would return 3.
ST_COVEREDBY(geom1, geom2) Returns 1 (true) if no point in geom1 is outside geom2.
ST_COVERS(geom1, geom2) Returns 1 (true) if no point in geom2 is outside geom1.
ST_CROSSES(geom1, geom2) Returns 1 (true) if the given geometries, geom1 and geom2, spatially cross, meaning some but not all interior points in common. If geom1 and/or geom2 are a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION, a 0 is returned regardless of if the two geometries cross
ST_DIFFERENCE(geom1, geom2) Returns a geometry that represents the part of geom1 that does not intersect with geom2.
ST_DIMENSION(geom) Returns the dimension of the given geometry geom, which is less than or equal to the coordinate dimension. If geom is a single geometry, a 0 is for POINT, a 1 is for LINESTRING, and a 2 is for POLYGON. If geom is a collection, it will return the largest dimension from the collection. If geom is empty, 0 is returned.
ST_DISJOINT(geom1, geom2) Returns 1 (true) if the given geometries, geom1 and geom2, do not spatially intersect.
ST_DISTANCE(geom1, geom2[, solution])

Calculates the minimum distance between the given geometries, geom1 and geom2, using the specified solution type. Solution types available:

  • 0 (default) - Euclidean; returns 2-D Euclidean distance
  • 1 - Haversine; returns minimum sphere distance in meters
  • 2 - Vincenty; returns minimum spheroid distance in meters, more accurate than Haversine but slower performance

Note: If geom1 and geom2 intersect (verify using ST_INTERSECTS), the distance will always be 0.

ST_DISTANCEPOINTS(x1, y1, x2, y2[, solution])

Calculates the minimum distance between the given points, x1, y1 and x2, y2, using the specified solution type. Solution types available:

  • 0 (default) - Euclidean; returns 2-D Euclidean distance
  • 1 - Haversine; returns minimum sphere distance in meters
  • 2 - Vincenty; returns minimum spheroid distance in meters, more accurate than Haversine but slower performance
ST_DFULLYWITHIN(geom1, geom2, distance[, solution])

Returns 1 (true) if the maximum distance between geometries geom1 and geom2 is less than or equal to the specified distance of each other using the specified solution type. If geom1 or geom2 is null, 0 (false) is returned. Solution types available:

  • 0 (default) - Euclidean; uses degrees to calculate distance
  • 1 - Sphere; uses meters to calculate distance
  • 2 - Spheroid; uses meters to calculate distance, more accurate than sphere but slower performance
ST_DWITHIN(geom1, geom2, distance[, solution])

Returns 1 (true) if the minimum distance between geometries geom1 and geom2 is within the specified distance of each other using the specified solution type. Solution types available:

  • 0 (default) - Euclidean; uses degrees to calculate distance
  • 1 - Sphere; uses meters to calculate distance
  • 2 - Spheroid; uses meters to calculate distance, more accurate than sphere but slower performance
ST_ELLIPSE(centerx, centery, height, width)

Returns an ellipse using the following values:

  • centerx - the x coordinate or longitude used to center the ellipse
  • centery - the y coordinate or latitude used to center the ellipse
  • height - the height of the ellipse (in degrees)
  • width - the width of the ellipse (in degrees)
ST_ENDPOINT(geom) Returns the last point of the given geom as a POINT if it's a LINESTRING. If geom is not a a LINESTRING, null is returned.
ST_ENVDWITHIN(geom1, geom2, distance[, solution])

Returns 1 (true) if geom1 is within the specified distance of the bounding box of geom2 using the specified solution type. Solution types available:

  • 0 (default) - Euclidean; uses degrees to calculate distance
  • 1 - Sphere; uses meters to calculate distance
ST_ENVELOPE(geom) Returns the bounding box of a given geometry geom.
ST_ENVINTERSECTS(geom1, geom2) Returns 1 (true) if the bounding box of the given geometries, geom1 and geom2, intersect.
ST_EQUALS(geom1, geom2) Returns 1 (true) if the given geometries, geom1 and geom2, are spatially equal. Note that order does not matter.
ST_EQUALSEXACT(geom1, geom2, tolerance) Returns 1 (true) if the given geometries, geom1 and geom2, are almost spatially equal within some given tolerance. If the values within the given geometries are within the tolerance value of each other, they're considered equal, e.g., if tolerance is 2, POINT(1 1) and POINT(1 3) are considered equal, but POINT(1 1) and POINT(1 3.1) are not. Note that the geometry types have to match for them to be considered equal.
ST_ERASE(geom1, geom2) Returns the result of erasing a portion of geom1 equal to the size of geom2.
ST_EXPAND(geom, units) Returns the bounding box expanded in all directions by the given units of the given geom. The expansion can also be defined for separate directions by providing separate parameters for each direction, e.g., ST_EXPAND(geom, unitsx, unitsy, unitsz, unitsm).
ST_EXPANDBYRATE(geom, rate) Returns the bounding box expanded by a given rate (a ratio of width and height) for the given geometry geom. The rate must be between 0 and 1.
ST_EXTERIORRING(geom) Returns a LINESTRING representing the exterior ring of the given POLYGON geom
ST_FORCE2D(geom) Returns the 2-dimensional version (e.g., X and Y coordinates) of geom, the provided geometry or set of geometries (e.g., via GEOMETRYCOLLECTION or WKT column name).
ST_FORCE3D(geom[, z])

Returns the 3-dimensional version (e.g., X, Y, and Z coordinates) of geom, a provided geometry or set of geometries (e.g., via GEOMETRYCOLLECTION or WKT column name), using z as the geometry's new z-value. The provided z-values can also be derived from a numeric column. If no z is provided, a 0 will be applied.

Note

If a WKT column is provided for geom and a numeric column is provided for z, the z values will be matched to the provided geometries by row in the source table. If a singular geometry is provided for geom and a column is provided for z, three-dimensional versions of the provided geometry will be returned for each z value found in the provided z column. If columns are provided for both geom and z and nulls are present in either column, the row containing null values will be skipped in the results.

ST_GENERATEPOINTS(geom, num) Creates a MULTIPOINT containing a number num of randomly generated points within the boundary of geom.
ST_GEOHASH(geom, precision)

Returns a hash string representation of the given geometry geom with specified precision (the length of the geohash string). The longer the precision, the more precise the hash is. By default, precision is set to 20; the max for precision is 32. Returns null if geom is an empty geometry.

See Geohashing for an example.

Note

The value returned will not be a geohash of the exact geometry but a geohash of the centroid of the given geometry

ST_GEOMETRYFROMTEXT(wkt) Alias for ST_GEOMFROMTEXT(wkt)
ST_GEOMETRYN(geom, index) Returns the index geometry back from the given geom geometry. The index starts from 1 and goes to the number of geometries in geom.
ST_GEOMETRYTYPE(geom) Returns the type of geometry from the given geom.
ST_GEOMETRYTYPEID(geom)

Returns the type ID of from geom. Type and ID mappings:

  • POINT = 0
  • LINESTRING = 1
  • POLYGON = 3
  • MULTIPOINT = 4
  • MULTILINESTRING = 5
  • MULTIPOLYGON = 6
  • GEOMETRYCOLLECTION = 7
ST_GEOMFROMGEOHASH(geohash, precision)

Returns a POLYGON boundary box using the given geohash with a precision set by the integer precision. If precision is specified, the function will use as many characters in the hash equal to precision to create the geometry. If no precision is specified, the full length of the geohash is used.

See Geohashing for an example.

ST_GEOMFROMH3(h3_index)

Returns a POLYGON boundary box of the hex grid identified by the given h3_index.

See H3 Geohashing for an example.

ST_GEOMFROMTEXT(wkt) Returns a geometry from the given Well-Known text representation wkt. Note that this function is only compatible with constants.
ST_H3(wkt, resolution)

Returns an H3 grid index, similar to a geohash, for the cell containing the centroid of the wkt, with the given resolution. The higher the resolution, the more precise the index is. The resolution must be an integer between 0 and 15.

See H3 Geohashing for an example.

ST_HEXGRID(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax, cell_side[, limit])

Creates a MULTIPOLYGON containing a grid of hexagons between given minimum and maximum points of a bounding box. The minimum point cannot be greater than or equal to the maximum point. The size (in meters) of the individual hexagons' sides is determined by cell_side. The cell_side cannot be greater than the width or height of the bounding box. The maximum number of cells that can be produced is determined by limit, a positive integer. Supported values for limit:

  • -1 - No limit to the number of cells generated (effectively limited by system memory)
  • 0 (default) - 100 million cells
  • <n> - Custom limit of n cells

If the custom limit request specifies more cells (based on the bounding box and the cell_side) than the system limit, a null is returned.

ST_INTERIORRINGN(geom, n) Returns the n-th interior LINESTRING ring of the POLYGON geom. If geom is not a POLYGON or the given n is out of range, a null is returned. The index begins at 1
ST_INTERSECTION(geom1, geom2) Returns the shared portion between given geometries geom1 and geom2
ST_INTERSECTS(geom1, geom2) Returns 1 (true) if the given geometries, geom1 and geom2, intersect in 2-D
ST_ISCLOSED(geom) Returns 1 (true) if the given geometry's (geom) start and end points coincide
ST_ISCOLLECTION(geom) Returns 1 (true) if geom is a collection, e.g., GEOMETRYCOLLECTION, MULTIPOINT, MULTILINESTRING, etc.
ST_ISEMPTY(geom) Returns 1 (true) if geom is empty
ST_ISRING(geom) Returns 1 (true) if LINESTRING geom is both closed (per ST_ISCLOSED) and "simple" (per ST_ISSIMPLE). Returns 0 if geom is not a LINESTRING
ST_ISSIMPLE(geom) Returns 1 (true) if geom has no anomalous geometric points, e.g., self-intersection or self-tangency
ST_ISVALID(geom) Returns 1 (true) if geom (typically a [MULTI]POLYGON) is well formed. A POLYGON is valid if its rings do not cross, and its boundary intersects only at POINTs (not along a line). The POLYGON must also not have dangling LINESTRINGs. A MULTIPOLYGON is valid if all of its elements are also valid, and the interior rings of those elements do not intersect. Each element's boundaries may touch but only at POINTs (not along a line). ST_MAKEVALID(geom) can be used to help correct invalid geometries.
ST_ISVALIDREASON(geom)

Returns Valid Geometry if geom is well formed, according to ST_ISVALID(geom); otherwise, returns the reason geom is determined to be malformed. ST_MAKEVALID(geom) can be used to help correct invalid geometries.

Example:

Function Call ST_ISVALIDREASON('POLYGON((-1 0, 1 0, 1 1, -1 -1))')
Return Self-intersection[0 0]
ST_LENGTH(geom[, solution])

Returns the length of the geometry if it is a LINESTRING or MULTILINESTRING. Returns 0 if another type of geometry, e.g., POINT, MULTIPOINT, etc. GEOMETRYCOLLECTIONs are also supported but the aforementioned type limitation still applies; the collection will be recursively searched for LINESTRINGs and MULTILINESTRINGs and the summation of all supported geometry types is returned (unsupported types are ignored). Solution types available:

  • 0 (default) - 2D Euclidean length
  • 1 - length on a sphere in meters
  • 2 - length on a spheroid in meters
ST_LINEFROMMULTIPOINT(geom) Creates a LINESTRING from geom if it is a MULTIPOINT. Returns null if geom is not a MULTIPOINT
ST_LINEINTERPOLATEPOINT(geom, fraction) Returns a POINT that represents the specified fraction of the LINESTRING geom. If geom is either empty or not a LINESTRING, null is returned
ST_LINELOCATEPOINT(linestring, point) Returns the location of the closest point in the given linestring to the given point as a value between 0 and 1. The return value is a fraction of the total linestring length.
ST_LINEMERGE(geom) Returns a LINESTRING or MULTILINESTRING from a given geom. If geom is a MULTILINESTRING comprising LINESTRINGs with shared endpoints, a contiguous LINESTRING is returned. If geom is a LINESTRING or a MULTILINESTRING comprising LINESTRINGS without shared endpoints, geom is returned If geom is an empty (MULTI)LINESTRING or a (MULTI)POINT or (MULTI)POLYGON, an empty GEOMETRYCOLLECTION is returned.
ST_LINESUBSTRING(geom, start_fraction, end_fraction) Returns the fraction of a given geom LINESTRING where start_fraction and end_fraction are between 0 and 1. For example, given LINESTRING(1 1, 2 2, 3 3) a start_fraction of 0 and an end_fraction of 0.25 would yield the first quarter of the given LINESTRING, or LINESTRING(1 1, 1.5 1.5). Returns null if start_fraction is greater than end_fraction. Returns null if input geometry is (MULTI)POINT, MULTILINESTRING, or (MULTI)POLYGON. Returns null if start_fraction and/or end_fraction are less than 0 or more than 1.
ST_LONGESTLINE(geom1, geom2[, solution])

Returns the LINESTRING that represents the longest line of points between the two geometries. If multiple longest lines are found, only the first line found is returned. If geom1 or geom2 is empty, null is returned. Solution types available:

  • 0 (default) - Euclidean; uses degrees to calculate the longest line
  • 1 - Sphere; uses meters to calculate the longest line
  • 2 - Spheroid; uses meters to calculate the longest line, more accurate than sphere but slower performance
ST_MAKEENVELOPE(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax) Creates a rectangular POLYGON from the given min and max parameters
ST_MAKELINE(geom[, geom2])

Creates a LINESTRING from geom if it is a MULTIPOINT. If geom is a POINT, there must be at least one other POINT to construct a LINESTRING. If geom is a LINESTRING, it must have at least two points. Returns null if geom is not a POINT, MULTIPOINT, or LINESTRING

Note

This function can be rather costly in terms of performance

ST_MAKEPOINT(x, y)

Creates a POINT at the given coordinate

Note

This function can be rather costly in terms of performance

ST_MAKEPOLYGON(geom)

Creates a POLYGON from geom. Inputs must be closed LINESTRINGs

Note

This function can be rather costly in terms of performance

ST_MAKETRIANGLE2D(x1, y1, x2, y2, x3, y3) Creates a closed 2-D POLYGON with three vertices
ST_MAKETRIANGLE3D(x1, y1, z1, x2, y2, z2, x3, y3, z3) Creates a closed 3-D POLYGON with three vertices
ST_MAKEVALID(geom, options)

Attempts to convert geom into a valid geometry when it is malformed, as determined by ST_ISVALID(geom). Returns geom if it is a valid geometry already. The method used to convert invalid geometries into valid ones can be specified in options as a space-separated string of x=y key/value pairs. The keys and corresponding values are as follows:

  • method - the algorithm used to convert invalid geometries into valid ones; either:
    • linework (default) - build geometry from lines extracted from geom
    • structure - build geometry from interior & exterior rings extracted from geom
  • keepcollapsed - if using the method of structure, whether to drop portions of the converted geometry that collapse to lower dimensions:
    • true (default) - keep portions of geometry that collapse to lower dimensions
    • false - don't keep portions of geometry that collapse to lower dimensions

Example using default linework method:

Function Call ST_MAKEVALID('POLYGON((-1 0, 1 0, 1 1, -1 -1))')
Return MULTIPOLYGON (((-1 -1, -1 0, 0 0, -1 -1)), ((1 0, 0 0, 1 1, 1 0)))

Example using the structure method without dropping collapsible parts of the converted geometry:

Function Call ST_MAKEVALID('POLYGON((0 0, 0 0, 0 0, 0 0))', 'method=structure keepcollapsed=true')
Return POINT (0 0)

Example using the structure method with dropping collapsible parts of the converted geometry:

Function Call ST_MAKEVALID('POLYGON((0 0, 0 0, 0 0, 0 0))', 'method=structure keepcollapsed=false')
Return POLYGON EMPTY
ST_MAXDISTANCE(geom1, geom2[, solution])

Returns the maximum distance between the given geom1 and geom2 geometries using the specified solution type. If geom1 or geom2 is empty, null is returned. Solution types available:

  • 0 (default) - returns maximum 2-D Euclidean distance
  • 1 - Sphere; returns maximum distance in meters
  • 2 - Spheroid; returns maximum distance in meters, more accurate than sphere but slower performance
ST_MAXX(geom) Returns the maximum x coordinate of a bounding box for the given geom geometry. This function works for 2-D and 3-D geometries.
ST_MAXY(geom) Returns the maximum y coordinate of a bounding box for the given geom geometry. This function works for 2-D and 3-D geometries.
ST_MAXZ(geom) Returns the maximum z coordinate of a bounding box for the given geom geometry. This function works for 2-D and 3-D geometries.
ST_MINX(geom) Returns the minimum x coordinate of a bounding box for the given geom geometry. This function works for 2-D and 3-D geometries.
ST_MINY(geom) Returns the minimum y coordinate of a bounding box for the given geom geometry. This function works for 2-D and 3-D geometries.
ST_MINZ(geom) Returns the minimum z coordinate of a bounding box for the given geom geometry. This function works for 2-D and 3-D geometries.
ST_MULTI(geom) Returns geom as a MULTI- geometry, e.g., a POINT would return a MULTIPOINT.
ST_MULTIPLERINGBUFFERS(geom, distance, outside)

Creates multiple buffers at specified distance around the given geom geometry. Multiple distances are specified as comma-separated values in an array, e.g., [10,20,30]. Valid values for outside are:

  • FULL - indicates that buffers will overlap or cover the given geom geometry. This is the default.
  • OUTSIDE_ONLY - indicates that buffers will be rings around the given geom geometry.
ST_NEAR(geom1, geom2) Returns the portion of geom2 that is closest to geom1. If geom2 is a singular geometry object (e.g., POINT, LINESTRING, POLYGON), geom2 will be returned. If geom2 a multi-geometry, e.g., MULTIPOINT, MULTILINESTRING, etc., the nearest singular geometry in geom2 will be returned.
ST_NORMALIZE(geom) Returns geom in its normalized (canonical) form, which may rearrange the points in lexicographical order.
ST_NPOINTS(geom) Returns the number of points (vertices) in geom.
ST_NUMGEOMETRIES(geom) If geom is a collection or MULTI- geometry, returns the number of geometries. If geom is a single geometry, returns 1.
ST_NUMINTERIORRINGS(geom) Returns the number of interior rings if geom is a POLYGON. Returns null if geom is anything else.
ST_NUMPOINTS(geom) Returns the number of points in the geom LINESTRING. Returns null if geom is not a LINESTRING.
ST_OVERLAPS(geom1, geom2) Returns 1 (true) if given geometries geom1 and geom2 share space. If geom1 and/or geom2 are a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION, a 0 is returned regardless of if the two geometries overlap
ST_PARTITION(geom, threshold) Returns a MULTIPOLYGON representing the given geom partitioned into a number of POLYGONs with a maximum number of vertices equal to the given threshold. Minimum value for threshold is 10; default value is 10000. If geom is not a POLYGON or MULTIPOLYGON, geom is returned. If the number of vertices in geom is less than the threshold, geom is returned.
ST_PERIMETER(geom[, solution])

Returns the perimeter of the geometry if it is a POLYGON or MULTIPOLYGON. Returns 0 if another type of geometry, e.g., POINT, MULTIPOINT, LINESTRING, or MULTILINESTRING. GEOMETRYCOLLECTIONs are also supported but the aforementioned type limitation still applies; the collection will be recursively searched for POLYGONs and MULTIPOLYGONs and the summation of all supported geometry types is returned (unsupported types are ignored). Solution types available:

  • 0 (default) - 2D Euclidean length
  • 1 - length on a sphere in meters
  • 2 - length on a spheroid in meters
ST_POINT(x, y) Returns a POINT with the given x and y coordinates.
ST_POINTFROMGEOHASH(geohash, precision)

Returns a POINT using the given geohash with a precision set by the integer precision. If precision is specified, the function will use as many characters in the hash equal to precision to create the geometry. If no precision is specified, the full length of the geohash is used.

Note

The POINT returned represents the center of the bounding box of the geohash

ST_POINTGRID(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax, cell_side[, limit])

Creates a MULTIPOLYGON containing a square-shaped grid of points between given minimum and maximum points of a bounding box. The minimum point cannot be greater than or equal to the maximum point. The distance between the points (in meters) is determined by cell_side. The cell_side cannot be greater than the width or height of the bounding box. The maximum number of cells that can be produced is determined by limit, a positive integer. Supported values for limit:

  • -1 - No limit to the number of cells generated (effectively limited by system memory)
  • 0 (default) - 100 million cells
  • <n> - Custom limit of n cells

If the custom limit request specifies more cells (based on the bounding box and the cell_side) than the system limit, a null is returned.

ST_POINTN(geom, n) Returns the n-th point in LINESTRING geom. Negative values are valid, but note that they are counted backwards from the end of geom. A null is returned if geom is not a LINESTRING.
ST_POINTS(geom) Returns a MULTIPOINT containing all of the coordinates of geom.
ST_PROJECT(geom, distance, azimuth) Returns a POINT projected from a start point geom along a geodesic calculated using distance and azimuth. If geom is not a POINT, null is returned.
ST_REMOVEPOINT(geom, offset) Remove a point from LINESTRING geom using offset to skip over POINTs in the LINESTRING. The offset is 0-based.
ST_REMOVEREPEATEDPOINTS(geom, tolerance) Removes points from geom if the point's vertices are greater than or equal to the tolerance of the previous point in the geometry's list. If geom is not a MULTIPOINT, MULTILINESTRING, or a MULTIPOLYGON, no points will be removed.
ST_REVERSE(geom) Return the geometry with its coordinate order reversed.
ST_SCALE(geom, x, y) Scales geom by multiplying its respective vertices by the given x and y values. This function also supports scaling geom using another geometry object, e.g., ST_SCALE('POINT(3 4)', 'POINT(5 6)') would return POINT(15 24). If specifying x and y for scale, note that the default value is 0, e.g., ST_SCALE('POINT(1 3)', 4) would return POINT(4 0).
ST_SEGMENTIZE(geom, max_segment_length[, solution])

Returns the given geom but segmentized n number of times depending on how the max_segment_length distance (in units based on the solution type) divides up the original geometry. The new geom is guaranteed to have segments that are smaller than the given max_segment_length. Note that POINTs are not able to be segmentized. Collection geometries (GEOMETRYCOLLECTION, MULTILINESTRING, MULTIPOINT, etc.) can be segmentized, but only the individual parts will be segmentized, not the collection as a whole. Solution types available:

  • 0 - Euclidean; uses degrees to calculate distance
  • 1 (default) - Sphere; uses meters to calculate distance
ST_SETPOINT(geom1, position, geom2) Replace a point of LINESTRING geom1 with POINT geom2 at position (base 0). Negative values are valid, but note that they are counted backwards from the end of geom.
ST_SHAREDPATH(geom1, geom2) Returns a collection containing paths shared by geom1 and geom2.
ST_SHORTESTLINE(geom1, geom2) Returns the 2-D LINESTRING that represents the shortest line of points between the two geometries. If multiple shortest lines are found, only the first line found is returned. If geom1 or geom2 is empty, null is returned
ST_SIMPLIFY(geom, tolerance)

Returns a simplified version of the given geom using an algorithm to reduce the number of points comprising a given geometry while attempting to best retain the original shape. The given tolerance determines how much to simplify the geometry. The higher the tolerance, the more simplified the returned geometry. Some holes might be removed and some invalid polygons (e.g., self-intersecting, etc.) might be present in the returned geometry. Only (MULTI)LINESTRINGs and (MULTI)POLYGONs can be simplified, including those found within GEOMETRYCOLLECTIONs; any other geometry objects will be returned unsimplified.

Note

The tolerance should be provided in the same units as the data. As a rule of thumb, a tolerance of 0.00001 would correspond to about one meter.

ST_SIMPLIFYPRESERVETOPOLOGY(geom, tolerance)

Returns a simplified version of the given geom using an algorithm to reduce the number of points comprising a given geometry while attempting to best retain the original shape. The given tolerance determines how much to simplify the geometry. The higher the tolerance, the more simplified the returned geometry. No holes will be removed and no invalid polygons (e.g., self-intersecting, etc.) will be present in the returned geometry. Only (MULTI)LINESTRINGs and (MULTI)POLYGONs can be simplified, including those found within GEOMETRYCOLLECTIONs; any other geometry objects will be returned unsimplified.

Note

The tolerance should be provided in the same units as the data. As a rule of thumb, a tolerance of 0.00001 would correspond to about one meter.

ST_SNAP(geom1, geom2, tolerance) Snaps geom1 to geom2 within the given tolerance. If the tolerance causes geom1 to not snap, the geometries will be returned unchanged.
ST_SPLIT(geom1, geom2) Returns a collection of geometries resulting from the split between geom1 and geom2 geometries.
ST_SQUAREGRID(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax, cell_side[, limit])

Creates a MULTIPOLYGON containing a grid of squares between given minimum and maximum points of a bounding box. The minimum point cannot be greater than or equal to the maximum point. The size (in meters) of the individual squares' sides is determined by cell_side. The cell_side cannot be greater than the width or height of the bounding box. The maximum number of cells that can be produced is determined by limit, a positive integer. Supported values for limit:

  • -1 - No limit to the number of cells generated (effectively limited by system memory)
  • 0 (default) - 100 million cells
  • <n> - Custom limit of n cells

If the custom limit request specifies more cells (based on the bounding box and the cell_side) than the system limit, a null is returned.

ST_STARTPOINT(geom) Returns the first point of LINESTRING geom as a POINT. Returns null if geom is not a LINESTRING.
ST_SYMDIFFERENCE(geom1, geom2) Returns a geometry that represents the portions of geom1 and geom2 geometries that do not intersect.
ST_TOUCHES(geom1, geom2) Returns 1 (true) if the given geometries, geom1 and geom2, have at least one point in common but their interiors do not intersect. If geom1 and/or geom2 are a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION, a 0 is returned regardless of if the two geometries touch
ST_TRANSLATE(geom, deltax, deltay[, deltaz]) Translate geom by given offsets deltax and deltay. A z-coordinate offset can be applied using deltaz.
ST_TRIANGLEGRID(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax, cell_side[, limit])

Creates a MULTIPOLYGON containing a grid of triangles between given minimum and maximum points of a bounding box. The minimum point cannot be greater than or equal to the maximum point. The size (in meters) of the individual triangles' sides is determined by cell_side. The cell_side cannot be greater than the width or height of the bounding box. The maximum number of cells that can be produced is determined by limit, a positive integer. Supported values for limit:

  • -1 - No limit to the number of cells generated (effectively limited by system memory)
  • 0 (default) - 100 million cells
  • <n> - Custom limit of n cells

If the custom limit request specifies more cells (based on the bounding box and the cell_side) than the system limit, a null is returned.

ST_UNION(geom1, geom2) Returns a geometry that represents the point set union of the two given geometries, geom1 and geom2.
ST_UNIONCOLLECTION(geom) Returns a geometry that represents the point set union of a single given geometry geom.
ST_UPDATE(geom1, geom2) Returns a geometry that is geom1 geometry updated by geom2 geometry
ST_VORONOIPOLYGONS(geom, tolerance) Returns a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION containing Voronoi polygons (regions consisting of points closer to a vertex in geom than any other vertices in geom) calculated from the vertices in geom and the given tolerance. The tolerance determines the distance at which points will be considered the same. An empty GEOMETRYCOLLECTION is returned if geom is an empty geometry, a single POINT, or a LINESTRING or POLYGON composed of equivalent vertices (e.g., POLYGON((0 0, 0 0, 0 0, 0 0)), LINESTRING(0 0, 0 0)).
ST_WITHIN(geom1, geom2) Returns 1 (true) if the geom1 geometry is inside the geom2 geometry. Note that as long as at least one point is inside of geom2, geom1 is considered within geom2 even if the rest of the geom1 lies along the boundary of geom2
ST_WKTTOWKB(geom)

Returns the binary form (WKB) of a geom (WKT)

Note

This function can only be used in queries against a single table.

ST_X(geom) Returns the X coordinate of the POINT geom; if the coordinate is not available, null is returned. geom must be a POINT.
ST_XMAX(geom) Alias for ST_MAXX()
ST_XMIN(geom) Alias for ST_MINX()
ST_Y(geom) Returns the Y coordinate of the POINT geom; if the coordinate is not available, null is returned. geom must be a POINT.
ST_YMAX(geom) Alias for ST_MAXY()
ST_YMIN(geom) Alias for ST_MINY()
ST_ZMAX(geom) Alias for ST_MAXZ()
ST_ZMIN(geom) Alias for ST_MINZ()

Aggregation Functions

Function Description
ST_AGGREGATE_COLLECT(geom) Alias for ST_COLLECT_AGGREGATE()
ST_AGGREGATE_INTERSECTION(geom) Alias for ST_INTERSECTION_AGGREGATE()
ST_COLLECT_AGGREGATE(geom) Returns a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION comprising all geometries found in the geom set. Any MULTI* geometries will be divided into separate singular geometries, e.g., MULTIPOINT((0 0), (1 1)) would be divided into POINT(0 0) and POINT(1 1) in the results; the same is true for elements of a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION found in geom, where a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION within the provided geom set will also be parsed, effectively flattening it and adding the individual geometries to the resulting GEOMETRYCOLLECTION. Any empty geometries in geom are ignored even if they are part of a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION. Any duplicate WKTs will be retained.
ST_DISSOLVE(geom) Dissolves all geometries within a given set into a single geometry. Note that the resulting single geometry can still be a group of noncontiguous geometries but represented as a single group, e.g., a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION. Best performance when used in conjunction with adjacent geometries
ST_DISSOLVEOVERLAPPING(geom) Dissolves all geometries within a given set into a single geometry. Note that the resulting single geometry can still be a group of noncontiguous geometries but represented as a single group, e.g., a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION. Best performance when used in conjunction with overlapping geometries
ST_INTERSECTION_AGGREGATE(geom) Returns a POLYGON or MULTIPOLYGON comprising the shared portion between all geometries found in the geom set. Returns an empty GEOMETRYCOLLECTION if there is no shared portion between all geometries. Functionally equivalent to ST_INTERSECTION(ST_INTERSECTION(ST_INTERSECTION(geom1, geom2), geom3), ... geomN).
ST_LINESTRINGFROMORDEREDPOINTS(x, y, t) Returns a LINESTRING that represents a "track" of the given points (x, y) ordered by the given sort column t (e.g., a timestamp or sequence number). If any of the values in the specified columns are null, the null "point" will be left out of the resulting LINESTRING. If there's only one non-null "point" in the source table, a POINT is returned. If there are no non-null "points" in the source table, a null is returned
ST_LINESTRINGFROMORDEREDPOINTS3D(x, y, z, t) Returns a LINESTRING that represents a "track" of the given 3D points (x, y, z) ordered by the given sort column t (e.g., a timestamp or sequence number). If any of the values in the specified columns are null, the null "point" will be left out of the resulting LINESTRING. If there's only one non-null "point" in the source table, a POINT is returned. If there are no non-null "points" in the source table, a null is returned
ST_POLYGONIZE(geom) Returns a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION containing POLYGONs comprising the provided (MULTI)LINESTRING(s). (MULTI)POINT and (MULTI)POLYGON geometries are ignored when calculating the resulting GEOMETRYCOLLECTION. If a valid POLYGON cannot be constructed from the provided (MULTI)LINESTRING(s), an empty GEOMETRYCOLLECTION will be returned.

Track Functions

The following functions are available in both SQL and the native API.

Function Description
ST_TRACKDURATION(unit, t)

Returns the total time, in the given units, spanned by timestamp values in column t. Grouping by track ID will return the duration per track.

The duration can be returned in any of the following date/time units:

  • YEAR
  • MONTH
  • DAY
  • HOUR
  • MINUTE
  • SECOND
  • MILLISECOND
ST_TRACKLENGTH(lat, lon, t[, solution])

Returns the total length of the track whose position values are specified by lat & lon and whose ordering is determined by an ascending sort on the timestamp t. Length can be returned with any of the following solution types:

Type Description
0 2D Euclidean length in degrees
1 (default) Length on a sphere in meters
2 Length on a spheroid in meters


ST_TRACK_DWITHIN

The ST_TRACK_DWITHIN table function finds tracks that are related, within spatial or temporal bounds (or both) to the given track(s). The track(s) to use as the filter criteria will be specified by the SEARCH_* parameters. The TRACK_* parameters specify the set of tracks to search through for a match.

Note

This function is only available in SQL or in the native API via /execute/sql.

The basic form of the ST_TRACK_DWITHIN function follows.

ST_TRACK_DWITHIN Table Function Syntax
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SELECT *
FROM TABLE
(
    ST_TRACK_DWITHIN
    (
        TRACK_TABLE => INPUT_TABLE(<table name | select statement>),
        TRACK_ID_COLUMN => < '<column name>' | <column position> >,
        TRACK_X_COLUMN => < '<column name>' | <column position> >,
        TRACK_Y_COLUMN => < '<column name>' | <column position> >,
        TRACK_ORDER_COLUMN => < '<column name>' | <column position> >,
        SEARCH_TABLE => INPUT_TABLE(<table name | select statement>),
        SEARCH_ID_COLUMN => < '<column name>' | <column position> >,
        SEARCH_X_COLUMN => < '<column name>' | <column position> >,
        SEARCH_Y_COLUMN => < '<column name>' | <column position> >,
        SEARCH_ORDER_COLUMN => < '<column name>' | <column position> >,
        [
            SEARCH_XY_DISTANCE => '<spatial distance with unit>',
            SPATIAL_SOLUTION_TYPE => <solution type>,
            SEARCH_TIME_DISTANCE => '<temporal distance with unit>'
        ]
    )
)

Parameters Description
TRACK_TABLE

Name of the table to search for tracks matching the track(s) specified in the SEARCH_* data set.

To perform a search on the flights table, pass the name of the table to INPUT_TABLE:

INPUT_TABLE(flights)

To perform a search on the result of a query, pass the query to INPUT_TABLE:

INPUT_TABLE
(
    SELECT * FROM flights_west
    UNION
    SELECT * FROM flights_east
)
TRACK_ID_COLUMN Table to search track column, containing the unique identifier for the track to which each track point belongs.
TRACK_X_COLUMN Table to search track column, containing the longitude value of each track point.
TRACK_Y_COLUMN Table to search track column, containing the latitude value of each track point.
TRACK_ORDER_COLUMN Table to search track column, by which the searched track points will be sorted in ascending order.
SEARCH_TABLE

Name of the search criteria track table, containing the track(s) to be used as the filter criteria when searching for matching tracks in the TRACK_* data set.

To match tracks from the flights_of_interest table, pass the name of the table to INPUT_TABLE:

INPUT_TABLE(flights_of_interest)

To match tracks from the result of a query, pass the query to INPUT_TABLE:

INPUT_TABLE
(
    SELECT * FROM flights_of_interest_west
    UNION
    SELECT * FROM flights_of_interest_east
)
SEARCH_ID_COLUMN Search criteria track column, containing the unique identifier for the track to which each track point belongs.
SEARCH_X_COLUMN Search criteria track column, containing the longitude value of each track point.
SEARCH_Y_COLUMN Search criteria track column, containing the latitude value of each track point.
SEARCH_ORDER_COLUMN Search criteria track column, by which the filter track points will be sorted in ascending order.
SEARCH_XY_DISTANCE

The radius around the given tracks to search for matching tracks.

Important

This parameter is not applicable when using a SPATIAL_SOLUTION_TYPE of 0.

Unit Description
f Feet
ki Kilometers
m (default) Meters
mi Miles
SPATIAL_SOLUTION_TYPE

Spatial match solution type; any of the following:

Type Description
0 (default) 2D Euclidean length in degrees
1 Length on a sphere, returned in units specified by SEARCH_XY_DISTANCE
2 Length on a spheroid, returned in units specified by SEARCH_XY_DISTANCE
SEARCH_TIME_DISTANCE

The maximum allowable time difference between a search criteria track's point and a matched track's points. The time can use any of the following suffices for units:

Unit Description
ms Milliseconds
s (default) Seconds
m Minutes
h Hours
d Days
w Weeks
months Months
y Years

To see the matches between a set of flights and a given set of flights of interest:

ST_TRACK_DWITHIN Example
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SELECT *
FROM TABLE
(
    ST_TRACK_DWITHIN
    (
        TRACK_TABLE => INPUT_TABLE(example_geospatial.flights),
        TRACK_ID_COLUMN => 'id',
        TRACK_X_COLUMN => 'lon',
        TRACK_Y_COLUMN => 'lat',
        TRACK_ORDER_COLUMN => 'flight_time',
        SEARCH_TABLE => INPUT_TABLE
                        (
                            SELECT id, lon, lat, flight_time
                            FROM example_geospatial.flights_northwest
                            UNION
                            SELECT id, lon, lat, flight_time
                            FROM example_geospatial.flights_northeast
                        ),
        SEARCH_ID_COLUMN => 1,
        SEARCH_X_COLUMN => 2,
        SEARCH_Y_COLUMN => 3,
        SEARCH_ORDER_COLUMN => 4,
        SEARCH_TIME_DISTANCE => '5m',
        SEARCH_XY_DISTANCE => '1ki',
        SPATIAL_SOLUTION_TYPE => 1
    )
)


ST_TRACKINTERSECTS

The ST_TRACKINTERSECTS table function finds tracks pass through the given geofence(s). The geofence(s) use as the filter will be specified by the GEOFENCE_* parameters. The TRACK_* parameters specify the set of tracks to search through for any intersecting the geofence(s).

The result will include a record for each intersecting track & geofence pair, with:

  • a LINESTRING representing the full track intersecting a geofence
  • a LINESTRING representing the geofence it intersected

Note

This function is only available in SQL or in the native API via /execute/sql.

The basic form of the ST_TRACKINTERSECTS function follows.

ST_TRACKINTERSECTS Table Function Syntax
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SELECT *
FROM TABLE
(
    ST_TRACKINTERSECTS
    (
        TRACK_TABLE => INPUT_TABLE(<table name | select statement>),
        TRACK_ID_COLUMN => < '<column name>' | <column position> >,
        TRACK_X_COLUMN => < '<column name>' | <column position> >,
        TRACK_Y_COLUMN => < '<column name>' | <column position> >,
        TRACK_ORDER_COLUMN => < '<column name>' | <column position> >,
        GEOFENCE_TABLE => INPUT_TABLE(<table name | select statement>),
        GEOFENCE_ID_COLUMN => < '<column name>' | <column position> >,
        GEOFENCE_WKT_COLUMN => < '<column name>' | <column position> >
    )
)

Parameters Description
TRACK_TABLE

Name of the table to search for tracks intersecting the geofence(s) specified in the SEARCH_* data set.

To perform a search on the flights table, pass the name of the table to INPUT_TABLE:

INPUT_TABLE(flights)

To perform a search on the result of a query, pass the query to INPUT_TABLE:

INPUT_TABLE
(
    SELECT * FROM flights_west
    UNION
    SELECT * FROM flights_east
)
TRACK_ID_COLUMN Table to search track column, containing the unique identifier for the track to which each track point belongs.
TRACK_X_COLUMN Table to search track column, containing the longitude value of each track point.
TRACK_Y_COLUMN Table to search track column, containing the latitude value of each track point.
TRACK_ORDER_COLUMN Table to search track column, by which the searched track points will be sorted in ascending order.
GEOFENCE_TABLE

Name of the geofence table, containing the WKT(s) to be used as the filter criteria when searching for intersecting tracks in the TRACK_* data set.

To search for tracks intersecting the geofence(s) from the flight_area_of_interest table, pass the name of the geofence table to INPUT_TABLE:

INPUT_TABLE(flight_area_of_interest)

To search for tracks intersecting the geofence(s) from the result of a query, pass the query to INPUT_TABLE:

INPUT_TABLE
(
    SELECT * FROM flight_area_of_interest_west
    UNION
    SELECT * FROM flight_area_of_interest_east
)
GEOFENCE_ID_COLUMN Geofence column, containing the unique identifier for the geofence.
GEOFENCE_WKT_COLUMN Geofence column, containing the WKT bounds of the geofence.

To see the intersections between a set of flights and an area of interest:

ST_TRACKINTERSECTS Example
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SELECT *
FROM TABLE
(
    ST_TRACKINTERSECTS
    (
        TRACK_TABLE =>         INPUT_TABLE(example_geospatial.flights),
        TRACK_ID_COLUMN =>     'id',
        TRACK_X_COLUMN =>      'lon',
        TRACK_Y_COLUMN =>      'lat',
        TRACK_ORDER_COLUMN =>  'flight_time',
        GEOFENCE_TABLE =>      INPUT_TABLE(example_geospatial.track_geofence),
        GEOFENCE_ID_COLUMN =>  'fence_name',
        GEOFENCE_WKT_COLUMN => 'fence_wkt'
    )
)
ORDER BY id, fence_name

Math Functions

Function Description
ABS(expr) Calculates the absolute value of expr
ACOS(expr) Returns the inverse cosine (arccosine) of expr as a double
ACOSF(expr) Returns the inverse cosine (arccosine) of expr as a float
ACOSH(expr) Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of expr as a double
ACOSHF(expr) Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of expr as a float
ASIN(expr) Returns the inverse sine (arcsine) of expr as a double
ASINF(expr) Returns the inverse sine (arcsine) of expr as a float
ASINH(expr) Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of expr as a double
ASINHF(expr) Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of expr as a float
ATAN(expr) Returns the inverse tangent (arctangent) of expr as a double
ATANF(expr) Returns the inverse tangent (arctangent) of expr as a float
ATANH(expr) Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of expr as a double
ATANHF(expr) Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of expr as a float
ATAN2(x, y) Returns the inverse tangent (arctangent) using two arguments as a double
ATAN2F(x, y) Returns the inverse tangent (arctangent) using two arguments as a float
ATN2(x, y) Alias for ATAN2
ATN2F(x, y) Alias for ATAN2F
CBRT(expr) Returns the cube root of expr as a double
CBRTF(expr) Returns the cube root of expr as a float
CEIL(expr) Alias for CEILING
CEILING(expr) Rounds expr up to the next highest integer
COS(expr) Returns the cosine of expr as a double
COSF(expr) Returns the cosine of expr as a float
COSH(expr) Returns the hyperbolic cosine of expr as a double
COSHF(expr) Returns the hyperbolic cosine of expr as a float
COT(expr) Returns the cotangent of expr as a double
COTF(expr) Returns the cotangent of expr as a float
DEGREES(expr) Returns the conversion of expr (in radians) to degrees as a double
DEGREESF(expr) Returns the conversion of expr (in radians) to degrees as a float
DIVZ(a, b, c) Returns the quotient a / b unless b == 0, in which case it returns c
EXP(expr) Returns e to the power of expr as a double
EXPF(expr) Returns e to the power of expr as a float
FLOOR(expr) Rounds expr down to the next lowest integer
GREATER(expr_a, expr_b) Returns whichever of expr_a and expr_b has the larger value, based on typed comparison
HYPOT(x, y) Returns the hypotenuse of x and y as a double
HYPOTF(x, y) Returns the hypotenuse of x and y as a float
IFERROR(expr, val) Alias for IF_ERROR(expr, val)
IFINF(expr, val) Alias for IF_INF(expr, val)
IFINFINITY(expr, val) Alias for IF_INF(expr, val)
IFNAN(expr, val) Alias for IF_NAN(expr, val)
IF_ERROR(expr, val)

Evaluates the given double or float expr, and if it resolves to infinity or NaN, return val

Tip

Conceptually, this function is the same as IF_INF(IF_NAN(expr, val), val)

Example:

Function Call Result
IF_ERROR((double(10)/0), 1) 1.0
IF_ERROR(log(-1), 1) 1.0
IF_INF(expr, val)

Evaluates the given double or float expr, and if it resolves to infinity, return val

Example:

Function Call Result
IF_INF((double(10)/0), 999) 999.0
IF_INF(log(-1), 999) NaN
IF_INFINITY(expr, val) Alias for IF_INF(expr, val)
IF_NAN(expr, val)

Evaluates the given double or float expr, and if it resolves to NaN, return val

Example:

Function Call Result
IF_NAN((double(10)/0), -1) Infinity
IF_NAN(log(-1), -1) -1.0
ISINFINITY(expr) Returns 1 (true) if expr is infinity by IEEE standard; otherwise, returns 0 (false)
IS_INFINITY(expr) Alias for ISINFINITY
ISNAN(expr) Returns 1 (true) if expr is not a number by IEEE standard; otherwise, returns 0 (false)
IS_NAN(expr) Alias for ISNAN
ISNUMERIC(expr) Returns 1 (true) if expr is a number by IEEE standard; otherwise, returns 0 (false)
IS_NUMERIC(expr) Alias for ISNUMERIC
LDEXP(x, exp) Returns the value of x * 2exp as a double
LDEXPF(x, exp) Returns the value of x * 2exp as a float
LESSER(expr_a, expr_b) Returns whichever of expr_a and expr_b has the smaller value, based on typed comparison
LN(expr) Returns the natural logarithm of expr as a double
LNF(expr) Returns the natural logarithm of expr as a float
LOG(expr) Alias for LN
LOG10(expr) Returns the base-10 logarithm of expr as a double
LOG10F(expr) Returns the base-10 logarithm of expr as a float
LOG1P(expr) Returns the natural logarithm of one plus expr as a double
LOG1PF(expr) Returns the natural logarithm of one plus expr as a float
LOG2(expr) Returns the binary (base-2) logarithm of expr as a double
LOG2F(expr) Returns the binary (base-2) logarithm of expr as a float
LOGF(expr) Alias for LNF
MAX_CONSECUTIVE_BITS(expr) Calculates the length of the longest series of consecutive 1 bits in the integer expr
MOD(dividend, divisor) Calculates the remainder after integer division of dividend by divisor
PI() Returns the value of pi
POW(base, exponent) Alias for POWER
POWF(base, exponent) Alias for POWERF
POWER(base, exponent) Returns base raised to the power of exponent as a double
POWERF(base, exponent) Returns base raised to the power of exponent as a float
RADIANS(expr) Returns the conversion of expr (in degrees) to radians as a double
RADIANSF(expr) Returns the conversion of expr (in degrees) to radians as a float
RAND() Returns a random floating-point value
REGR_VALX(y, x) Returns NULL if y is NULL; otherwise, returns x
REGR_VALY(y, x) Returns NULL if x is NULL; otherwise, returns y
ROUND(expr, scale)

Rounds expr to the nearest decimal number with scale decimal places when scale is a positive number; rounds to the nearest number such that the result has -(scale) zeros to the left of the decimal point when scale is negative; use scale of 0 to round to the nearest integer. Examples:

Function Call Result
ROUND(12345.678, 2) 12345.68
ROUND(12345.678, 0) 12346
ROUND(12345.678, -2) 12300
SIGN(expr)

Determines whether a number is positive, negative, or zero; returns one of the following three values:

Expression Value Result
positive 1
zero 0
negative -1
SIN(expr) Returns the sine of expr as a double
SINF(expr) Returns the sine of expr as a float
SINH(expr) Returns the hyperbolic sine of expr as a double
SINHF(expr) Returns the hyperbolic sine of expr as a float
SQRT(expr) Returns the square root of expr as a double
SQRTF(expr) Returns the square root of expr as a float
TAN(expr) Returns the tangent of expr as a double
TANF(expr) Returns the tangent of expr as a float
TANH(expr) Returns the hyperbolic tangent of expr as a double
TANHF(expr) Returns the hyperbolic tangent of expr as a float
TRUNCATE(expr, scale)

Rounds expr down to the nearest decimal number with scale decimal places when scale is a positive number; rounds down to the nearest number such that the result has -(scale) zeros to the left of the decimal point when scale is negative; use scale of 0 to round down to the nearest integer. Examples:

Function Call Result
TRUNCATE(12345.678, 2) 12345.67
TRUNCATE(12345.678, 0) 12345
TRUNCATE(12345.678, -2) 12300
WIDTH_BUCKET(expr, min, max, count)

Defines a set of count equal intervals (buckets) within the range of min & max, and puts the value of expr into one of those buckets, where the value is greater than or equal to the minimum value of the bucket and less than the maximum value of the bucket. Returns the 1-based number of the bucket into which the value of expr fell. For values smaller than min, 0 is returned; for values greater than or equal to max, count + 1 is returned. Examples:

In the following examples, a set of 5 equal buckets are defined between 0 and 10 (0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, & 8-10), and various values are bucketed using that set.

Function Call Result
WIDTH_BUCKET(-1, 0, 10, 5) 0
WIDTH_BUCKET(0, 0, 10, 5) 1
WIDTH_BUCKET(5, 0, 10, 5) 3
WIDTH_BUCKET(10, 0, 10, 5) 6
WIDTH_BUCKET(11, 0, 10, 5) 6

Null Functions

Important

Be mindful that no error is thrown when Kinetica tries to convert different data type in the Null functions below, so if the output is unexpected, it may be that the types used aren't of the same type.

Function Description
IS_NULL(expr) Returns 1 (true) if expr is null; otherwise, returns 0 (false)
ISNULL(expr) Alias for IS_NULL(expr)
NULLIF(expr_a, expr_b) Returns null if expr_a equals expr_b; otherwise, returns the value of expr_a. Both expressions should be of the same convertible data type
NVL(expr_a, expr_b) Returns expr_a if it is not null; otherwise, returns expr_b. Both expressions should be of the same convertible data type; see Short-Circuiting for error-checking details
NVL2(expr, value_if_not_null, value_if_null) Evaluates expr: if expr does not return a null, value_if_not_null is returned. If expr does return a null, value_if_null is returned. Both value_if_not_null and value_if_null should be of the same data type as expr or implicitly convertible; see Short-Circuiting for error-checking details
REMOVE_NULLABLE(expr) Alias for ZEROIFNULL
ZEROIFNULL(expr) Replaces null values with appropriate values based on the column type (e.g., 0 if numeric column, an empty string if charN column, etc.). Also removes the nullable column property if used to calculate a derived column.

String Functions

Important

These functions will only work with fixed-width string fields (char1 - char256).

Function Description
ASCII(expr) Returns the ASCII code for the first character in expr
CHAR(expr) The character represented by the standard ASCII code expr in the range [ 0 - 127 ]
CONCAT(expr_a, expr_b)

Performs a string concatenation of expr_a & expr_b; use nested CONCAT calls to concatenate more than two strings

Note

The resulting field size of any CONCAT will be a charN field big enough to hold the concatenated fields, e.g., concatenating a char32 column and a char64 column will result in a char128 column. Columns of type char256 cannot be used with CONCAT.

CONCAT_TRUNCATE(expr_a, expr_b)

Returns the concatenation of expr_a and expr_b, truncated at the maximum size of expr_a. For columns, this size is explicit; for string constants, this will be the smallest charN type that can hold the expr_a string.

Examples:

Function Call Result
CONCAT_TRUNCATE('ABC123','!') ABC123!
CONCAT_TRUNCATE('ABC123','DEFG')

ABC123DE

(char8 is the minimum size required to hold the ABC123 value, so the result is truncated at 8 characters)

CONCAT_TRUNCATE('ABCD1234','DEFG')

ABCD1234

(char8 is the minimum size required to hold the ABCD1234 value, so no additional characters can be concatenated)

CONTAINS(match_expr, ref_expr) Returns 1 if ref_expr contains match_expr by string-literal comparison; otherwise, returns 0
DIFFERENCE(expr_a, expr_b) Returns a value between 0 and 4 that represents the difference between the sounds of expr_a and expr_b based on the SOUNDEX() value of the strings--a value of 4 is the best possible sound match
EDIT_DISTANCE(expr_a, expr_b) Returns the Levenshtein edit distance between expr_a and expr_b; the lower the the value, the more similar the two strings are
ENDS_WITH(match_expr, ref_expr) Returns 1 if ref_expr ends with match_expr by string-literal comparison; otherwise, returns 0
INITCAP(expr) Returns expr with the first letter of each word in uppercase
IPV4_PART(expr, part_num)

Returns the octet of the IP address given in expr at the position specified by part_num. Valid part_num values are constants from 1 to 4.

Examples:

Function Call Result
IPV4_PART('12.34.56.78', 1) 12
IPV4_PART('12.34.56.78', 4) 78
IS_IPV4(expr) Returns 1 if expr is an IPV4 address; returns 0 otherwise
ISIPV4(expr) Alias for IS_IPV4(expr)
LCASE(expr) Converts expr to lowercase
LEFT(expr, num_chars) Returns the leftmost num_chars characters from expr
LEN(expr) Alias for LENGTH
LENGTH(expr) Returns the number of characters in expr
LIKE(ref_expr, match_expr)

Returns whether ref_expr matches the given match_expr. The match is a string literal one with the following exceptions:

  • % matches any string of 0 or more characters
  • _ matches any single character
LOCATE(match_expr, ref_expr[, start_pos]) Returns the starting position of the first match of match_expr in ref_expr, starting from position 1 or start_pos (if specified). If match_expr can't be found or start_pos is outside the range of letters in ref_expr, a 0 is returned.
LOWER(expr) Alias for LCASE
LPAD(base_expr, length, pad_expr)

Left pads the given base_expr string with the pad_expr string to the given length of characters. If base_expr is longer than length, the return value is shortened to length characters. If length is larger than 256, it will be truncated to 256.

Examples:

Function Call Result
LPAD('test', 9, 'pad') padpatest
LPAD('test', 3, 'pad') tes
LTRIM(expr) Removes whitespace from the left side of expr
POSITION(match_expr, ref_expr[, start_pos]) Alias for LOCATE
REPLACE(ref_expr, match_expr, repl_expr) Replaces every occurrence of match_expr in ref_expr with repl_expr
REPLACE_CHAR (ref_expr, match_char, repl_char) Replaces every occurrence of the character match_char in ref_expr with the character repl_char
REPLACE_TRUNCATE (ref_expr, match_expr, repl_expr) Replaces every occurrence of match_expr in ref_expr with repl_expr, and then truncates the resulting string at 256 characters if it is longer than that
REVERSE(expr)

Returns expr with the order of characters reversed.

Examples:

Function Call Result
REVERSE('Reverse') esreveR
REVERSE('Was it a bat I saw?') ?was I tab a ti saW
RIGHT(expr, num_chars) Returns the rightmost num_chars characters from expr
RPAD(base_expr, length, pad_expr)

Right pads the given base_expr string with the pad_expr string to the given length of characters. If base_expr is longer than length, the return value is shortened to length characters. If length is larger than 256, it will be truncated to 256.

Examples:

Function Call Result
RPAD('test', 9, 'pad') testpadpa
RPAD('test', 3, 'pad') tes
RTRIM(expr) Removes whitespace from the right side of expr
SOUNDEX(expr)

Returns a soundex value from expr. Only the first word in the string will be considered in the calculation.

Note: This is the algorithm used by most programming languages

SPACE(n) Returns a string consisting of n space characters. The value of n can only be within the range of 0-256.
SPLIT(expr, delim, group_num)

Splits expr into groups delimited by the delim character and returns the group_num split group. If group_num is positive, groups will be counted from the beginning of expr; if negative, groups will be counted from the end of expr going backwards. Two consecutive delimiters will result in an empty string being added to the list of selectable groups. If no instances of delim exist in expr, the entire string is available at group 1 (and -1). Group 0 returns nothing.

Examples:

Function Call Result
SPLIT('apple', 'p', 1) a
SPLIT('apple', 'p', 2) <empty string>
SPLIT('apple', 'p', -1) le
STARTS_WITH(match_expr, ref_expr) Returns 1 if ref_expr starts with match_expr by string-literal comparison; otherwise, returns 0
STRCMP(expr_a, expr_b)

Compares expr_a to expr_b in a lexicographical sort

Situation Result
expr_a and expr_b are the same 0
expr_a comes before expr_b, lexicographically -1
expr_a comes after expr_b, lexicographically 1
SUBSTR(expr, start_pos, num_chars) Alias for SUBSTRING
SUBSTRING(expr, start_pos, num_chars) Returns num_chars characters from the expr, starting at the 1-based start_pos
TRIM(expr) Removes whitespace from both sides of expr
UCASE(expr) Converts expr to uppercase
UPPER(expr) Alias for UCASE

User/Security Functions

Function Description
CURRENT_SCHEMA() Returns the default schema of the current user
CURRENT_USER() Alias for USER
HASH(column[, seed]) Returns a non-negative integer representing an obfuscated version of column, using the given seed; default seed is 0

IS_MEMBER(role[, user])

or

IS_ROLEMEMBER(role[, user])

Returns whether the current user (or the given user, if specified) has been assigned the given role, either directly or indirectly:

Situation Result
Current/given user has been granted role 1
Current/given user has not been granted role 0
Role role does not exist null
MASK(expr, start, length[, char])

Masks length characters of expr, beginning at the position identified by start, with * characters (or the character specified in char):

Function Call Result
MASK('Characters', 4, 5) Cha*****rs
MASK('Characters', 5, 2, '#') Char##ters
NEW_UUID() Returns a randomly-generated UUID
OBFUSCATE(column[, seed]) Alias for HASH
SHA256(expr) Returns the hex digits of the SHA-256 hash of the given value expr as a char64 string.
SYSTEM_USER() Alias for USER
USER() Returns the username of the current user

Column Expressions

Many of the functions above accept expressions as inputs in place of column names for selecting data from tables e.g. /aggregate/minmax. Given below are some examples of column expressions:

(x + y)
(2 * col1) + col2

Filter Expressions

Data can be filtered with the use of filter expressions within many endpoints; e.g., /filter. These expressions may contain column expressions as well as tests for equality/inequality for selecting records from the database. A filter expression cannot contain aggregation functions and should evaluate to a logical value ( true or false ). When the result of an expression evaluation is a numerical value, the result is converted to a logical value as follows: 0 is considered false and any other value is considered as true. Some examples of filter expressions are given below:

(x > y)
(a != b) or (c = d)
(timestamp > 1456749296789) and (x <= 10.0)
ABS(timestamp - 1456749296789) < 60 * 60 * 1000
QUARTER(timestamp) = 1 and MOD(YEAR(timestamp), 4) = 0
msg_id == 'MSGID1'
(x = 5) and y in (10,20,30)

Aggregate Expressions

Some endpoints accept aggregation expressions as inputs for selecting data from tables, e.g., /aggregate/groupby. Such expressions can only contain aggregation functions and non-nested functions of aggregation functions.

Function Description
ARG_MIN(agg_expr, ret_expr) The value of ret_expr where agg_expr is the minimum value (e.g. ARG_MIN(cost, product_id) returns the product ID of the lowest cost product)
ARG_MAX(agg_expr, ret_expr) The value of ret_expr where agg_expr is the maximum value (e.g. ARG_MAX(cost, product_id) returns the product ID of the highest cost product)
AVG(expr) The average of values of expr
CORR(expr1, expr2) Calculates the correlation coefficient of expr1 and expr2
CORRELATION(expr1, expr2) Alias for CORR
CORRCOEF(expr1, expr2) Alias for CORR
COUNT(expr) Count of non-null values of expr; use * to count all values within an aggregation group or over an entire table
COUNT_DISTINCT(expr) Count of the distinct values of expr
COV(expr1, expr2) Alias for COVAR_POP
COVAR(expr1, expr2) Alias for COVAR_POP
COVARIANCE(expr1, expr2) Alias for COVAR_POP
COVAR_POP(expr1, expr2) Calculates the population covariance of expr1 and expr2
COVAR_SAMP(expr1, expr2) Calculates the sample covariance of expr1 and expr2
GROUPING(expr)

Used primarily with Rollup, Cube, and Grouping Sets, to distinguish the source of null values in an aggregated result set, returns whether expr is part of the aggregation set used to calculate the values in a given result set row. Returns 0 if expr is part of the row's aggregation set, 1 if expr is not (meaning that aggregation took place across all expr values).

For example, in a ROLLUP(A) operation, there will be two potential rows with null in the result set for column A. One row will contain null values of A aggregated together, and the other will contain null, but be an aggregation over the entire table, irrespective of A values. In this case, GROUPING(A) will return 0 for the null values of A aggregated together (as well as all other grouped A values) and 1 for the row resulting from aggregating across all A values.

KURT(expr) Alias for KURTOSIS_POP
KURTOSIS(expr) Alias for KURTOSIS_POP
KURTOSIS_POP(expr) Calculate the population kurtosis of expr
KURTOSIS_SAMP(expr) Calculate the sample kurtosis of expr
KURT_POP(expr) Alias for KURTOSIS_POP
KURT_SAMP(expr) Alias for KURTOSIS_SAMP
MAX(expr) The maximum of values of expr
MEAN(expr) Alias for AVG
MIN(expr) The minimum of values of expr
PRODUCT(expr) The product of values of expr
REGR_AVGX(y, x) Average of the independent variable (SUM(x)/N) of the line determined by computing a least-squares-fit linear regression over the given (X, Y) pairs
REGR_AVGY(y, x) Average of the dependent variable (SUM(y)/N) of the line determined by computing a least-squares-fit linear regression over the given (X, Y) pairs
REGR_COUNT(y, x) Number of input rows used in computing a linear regression, where both expressions are non-null
REGR_INTERCEPT(y, x) Y-intercept of the line determined by computing a least-squares-fit linear regression over the given (X, Y) pairs
REGR_R2(y, x) Square of the correlation coefficient, marking how well the least-squares-fit linear regression fit the data set
REGR_SLOPE(y, x) Slope of the line determined by computing a least-squares-fit linear regression over the given (X, Y) pairs
REGR_SXX(y, x) "Sum of squares" of the independent variable (SUM(x^2) - SUM(x)^2/N) of the line determined by computing a least-squares-fit linear regression over the given (X, Y) pairs
REGR_SXY(y, x) "Sum of Products" of independent variable times dependent variable (SUM(x * y) - SUM(x) * SUM(y)/N) of the line determined by computing a least-squares-fit linear regression over the given (X, Y) pairs
REGR_SYY(y, x) "Sum of squares" of the dependent variable (SUM(y^2) - SUM(y)^2/N) of the line determined by computing a least-squares-fit linear regression over the given (X, Y) pairs
SKEW(expr) Alias for SKEWNESS_POP
SKEWNESS(expr) Alias for SKEWNESS_POP
SKEWNESS_POP(expr) Calculate the population skew of expr
SKEWNESS_SAMP(expr) Calculate the sample skew of expr
SKEW_POP(expr) Alias for SKEWNESS_POP
SKEW_SAMP(expr) Alias for SKEWNESS_SAMP
STDDEV(expr) The population standard deviation over values of expr (i.e. the denominator is N)
STDDEV_POP(expr) The population standard deviation over values of expr (i.e. the denominator is N)
STDDEV_SAMP(expr) The sample standard deviation over values of expr (i.e. the denominator is N-1)
SUM(expr) The sum of values of expr
VAR(expr) The population variance over values of expr (i.e. the denominator is N)
VAR_POP(expr) The population variance over values of expr (i.e. the denominator is N)
VAR_SAMP(expr) The sample variance over values of expr (i.e. the denominator is N-1)
VARIANCE(expr) Alias for VAR
VARIANCE_POP(expr) Alias for VAR_POP
VARIANCE_SAMP(expr) Alias for VAR_SAMP

Some examples of aggregate expressions:

SUM(sale_price) - SUM(base_price)
MAX(CEIL(x)) - MIN(FLOOR(x))
AVG(ABS(z - 100.0))

Short-Circuiting

The logical operators and & or implement a version of boolean short-circuiting where if either side of the expression encounters an error (divide-by-zero, etc.) but the other side evaluates to a value that alone would determine the overall value of the logical expression, the error will be ignored and the logical value returned:

  • If one side of an and evaluates to false and the other side evaluates to an error, false will be returned.
  • If one side of an or evaluates to true and the other side evaluates to an error, true will be returned.

In the normal case, both sides of either of these operators would be evaluated simultaneously. However, to allow these operators to be used to check for error conditions, if an error is encountered on either side but the other side is enough information to determine the overall value of the expression, the error will be ignored.

This same behavior applies to the evaluation branches of the following functions:

  • IF
  • NVL
  • NVL2

It also applies to SQL conditional functions.